Abnormal Quantity of Urine
Urine output may be increased by a large intake of fluid, diuretics and consumption of tea and alcohol. Urine output is decreased by less intake and increased loss of fluid via other channels such as by perspiration, vomiting, diarrhea or high rise of temperature.
Total quantity of urine may be increased due to several reasons such as diabetes mellitus, chronic nephritis, hyperparathyroidism and hypertension.
Decreased quantity of urine may be due to acute nephritis, severe gastro-enteritis, lessened blood pressure, diminished intake of fluid, exposure of high atmospheric temperature and excessive sweating.
Increased Frequency of Urination
This is often due to passage of large amount of urine. A small quantity is passed each time and quite frequently. Some of the important reasons for increased frequency may be
a) Vesical irritation as in cystitis, by a stone or a new growth.
b) Pressure on the bladder from outside, as by ovarian or uterine tumors and retroverted pregnant uterus.
c) In renal colic, the frequency is increased although a few drops may only be passed each time with some straining.
d) Elderly male, suffering from enlarged prostrate, passes small quantity of urine each time and straining hinders rather than helps the flow.
Pain During Micturition
This occurs usually from distention of renal pelvis or obstruction lower down in the ureter retarding forward flow of urine. In addition to pain, the patient has frequent desire to pass urine although very little is passed each time.
The kidneys function well and the urine is secreted but retained in the bladder. The distended bladder forms a cystic swelling in the hypogastrium ,which may be mistaken for a tumor; and in a female, gravid uterus. The characteristic point is that the swelling disappears on emptying the bladder.
This is defined as urination in children especially during sleep at night. This may be associated with enlarged tonsils, thyroid deficiency, phimosis, intestinal worms etc.
Either no urine can enter the bladder or none is secreted by the kidneys. The bladder is consequently empty and there is no desire to pass urine.