Blood Test Procedures for Diabetes Diagnosis: An Overview of Diabetic Blood Testing

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List of Blood Test Procedures for Diabetes Diagnosis

There are several blood test procedure for diabetes diagnosis which can be performed to determine whether someone has diabetes, and whether a known diabetic is managing his or her blood sugar levels successfully.

Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS)

A test for fasting blood sugar is usually performed to measure the amount of sugar in the blood of individuals who present symptoms of diabetes, such as frequent thirst and urination, weight loss, increased hunger, and tingling and numbness of the extremities. This test is also requested in patients with diabetes in order to monitor their blood sugar levels regularly. It is done by fasting for eight hours, before blood is taken. Blood may be taken through the arm vein or through a finger prick, depending on the method used for analysis. A value of 126 mg/dL or more during two separate measurements are frequently indicative of diabetes.

Random Blood Sugar

A random blood sugar test, also referred to as casual plasma glucose test is usually taken anytime of the day without regard to food intake of the individual. This is done to check for measurement of glucose in the blood for evaluation of diabetes. Levels of 200 mg/dL may be indicative of diabetes, and affected individuals are given additional tests for further evaluation.

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

A more sensitive test for evaluation of diabetes is the oral glucose tolerance test or OGTT. An FBS test is first taken, and the result usually serves as the baseline. A standard volume, about 75 grams, of glucose solution is then given to the patient. His blood glucose level is then measured after two hours. When the glucose measurement after two hours falls between 140 to 199 mg/dL, the patient is said to have pre-diabetes, which means that the person’s risk to develop diabetes is increased. A value of 200 mg/dL or more is frequently an indication of diabetes.

OGTT for Gestational Diabetes

Pregnant women who are not diabetic, may develop gestational diabetes. Gestational blood test procedure for diabetes diagnosis or screening is usually done on pregnant women who are obese, have family members with diabetes, and who had gestational diabetes on any previous pregnancy. This is often done on the 24th to the 28th week of pregnancy. The test is done similar to an OGTT test with the woman undergoing an 8 hour fasting period. Blood is then taken as a baseline record. Then a 100 gram glucose solution is given to the woman, and after one, two and three hours, her blood sugar levels are again checked. When her test results show two or more elevated results, she is then diagnosed with gestational diabetes. Women found to have gestational diabetes are usually given recommendations on how to control their blood sugar through proper diet and weight control.


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