A Timeline of Bionics History
1945: Willen J. Koff develops the first kidney dialysis machine.
1950: The Turing Test is created by Alan Turing. The test is a process in which a “judge" engages a computer and a real person in “conversation." The computer passes the test if the judge cannot determine which party is the computer.
1958: In the same year as Jack Steele invented the term bionics, the first artificial pacemaker is fully implanted into a human patient, at Karolinska University Hospital in Sweden. This early experiment is not a great success, however, as the implant is functional for only three hours.
1961: A computer-operated mechanical hand is developed at MIT.
1962: High-density polythene—which would later be used in artificial hip joints—is developed by John Charnley.
1971: Bausch & Lomb develop the world’s first soft contact lens.
1978: The multi-channel cochlear implant, which allows the recipient to hear by mimicking the function of the cochlea, is first used.
1987: A patient with advanced Parkinson’s disease is fitted with a deep-brain electrical stimulation implant.
1996: Scottish researchers announce they have produced the first cloned mammal: a sheep named Dolly.
1997: World chess champion Garry Kasparov is beaten by a computerized chess machine called Deep Blue.
1999: AIBO, the first artificially intelligent pet, is introduced by Sony. The pet can walk, see, and understand and respond to spoken instructions.
2000: An artificial silicon retina is implanted into a human eye. The artificial retina is made from silicon microchips which contain thousands of tiny light-converting units.
2001: Amputee Jesse Sullivan receives a fully robotic arm developed by the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. The arm has a nerve muscle graft which allows him to use his own thoughts to move the artificial limb.