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Diabetes Symptoms: Blood Sugar Levels and Hyperglycemia
Monitoring and controlling blood sugar levels are crucial steps in diabetes management, with an assigned target level generally determined by a physician. From time to time, patients may experience abnormally high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia), a risky extreme for diabetics. Prolonged hyperglycemia, can lead to diabetes symptoms, including increased thirst and/or urination, dry mouth or skin, blurred vision, fatigue, and cuts or sores that will not heal.
Hyperglycemia causes may derive from a number of sources, such as prediabetes, pancreatic cancer, pancreatitis, glucagonoma, hyperthyroidism, eating excess food, inactivity, stress and injuries. Ironically, medicinal therapy – known to improve the quality of life – is recognized as a potential culprit, including both prescribed and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. It is important to determine the underlying cause to eradicate such high readings.
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Medications That Raise Blood Sugar Levels
The following classes have a history of causing hyperglycemia:
One method of birth control, oral contraceptives are comprised of synthetic hormones, typically produced by women. Oral contraceptives generally contain both estrogen and progesterone, or progesterone solely. Additional progesterone and increased estrogen entering the body have been linked to increased blood sugars.
Used to treat psychotic conditions, such as schizophrenia and manic depression (bipolar disorder), antipsychotics affect the brain’s chemical actions, thus, providing symptomatic relief. Diabetics taking an antipsychotic -- particularly risperidone, olanzapine and clozapine -- are advised to check their blood sugar levels often.[1,2]
Non-anabolic steroids come in a variety of forms--injection, pill, liquid and inhaled--treating symptoms resulting from upper respiratory and inflammatory conditions, such as asthma, COPD, arthritis and psoriasis. Due to known affiliated side effects, they should not be taken for long periods. Hyperglycemia and steroid-induced diabetes mellitus have occurred in patients with preexisting diabetes or prediabetics, respectively.
Diuretics, or “water pills", remove excess bodily fluids and are commonly prescribed for Meniere’s disease, edema, and heart and lung conditions. They suppress the body’s insulin production, boosting blood glucose levels.
Used to treat seizures, phenothiazines are known to worsen blood sugar levels when used on a consistent basis. This particular category interacts with several antidiabetic medications, including glipizide, glyburide, acarbose, as well as classes:
- Oral hypoglycemics
Patients with a history of coronary-related conditions, such as hypertension (high blood pressure), heart failure and chest pain (angina), may be prescribed a beta-blocker to alleviate stress on the heart. According to Dr. Domenic Sica of the Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, some beta-blockers have the potential of inducing diabetes in someone with prediabetes, as well as influencing blood sugar levels in a preexisting diabetic.
Medications that raise blood sugars also include diazoxide, dextrose, epinephrine, glucagon, isoniazid, lithium, phenytoin, triamterene, furosemide and nicotinic acid.
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Patients on any of the above medications should be closely monitored. If a medication is causing hyperglycemia, the patient’s health care provider may recommend a medication combination to lower his or her blood glucose, a medication switch or a complete halt.
Disclaimer: Do not stop any medication unless directed to do so by a licensed physician. The preceding information presented is for educational purposes and should not replace the advice and care of a health care provider.
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MedlinePlus. “Glucose test – blood", http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003482.htm.
PubMed.gov. “Metabolic effects associated with atypical antipsychotic treatment in the developmentally disabled", http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16187775.
MEDSort Drugs. “Drug Category Information Page: Phenothiazines", http://drugs.medsort.com/drugs/ClassProfile.aspx?ClassID=22&uo=pt&mmp=3&mcp=1.
ABCNews. “Is it True That Beta Blockers Increase My Risk of Developing Diabetes?" http://abcnews.go.com/Health/HypertensionTreatment/story?id=5234255.
South Dakota Diabetes Prevention and Control Program. Recommendations for Management of Diabetes in South Dakota, 2008.
Joslin Diabetes Center, http://www.joslin.org/.
American Diabetes Association, http://www.diabetes.org/.
Diabetes Forecast Magazine, http://forecast.diabetes.org/.