The Basics of Cybernetics: Communication across Systems and Biological Components

Cybernetics is the technical term for studying communication systems and for checking control systems, such as regulation of clocks, waterworks, etc. In biomedical terms, it means the study of how various neural and other biological components of the body communicate with each other.

You
will find a cybernetics expert or researcher involved in molecular biology
research using complex set of cells or molecules to study how they communicate
with each other, what messages are passed on and so on. In biomedical sciences,
this study is particularly important to study why certain persons suffer from
personality deficits, psychological defects, hearing defects, neural defects,
and what causes paralysis, permanently, or partially, and how the cognitive
systems, such as the sense of smell, sight, hearing are inter-related, and how
the neural system (the brain and other areas) receive, absorb, co-relate, and
issue commands to other parts of the biological systems to respond in
particular manners, or how does one cell simply does not communicate, but
allows it to pass through.

A
simple example that would illustrate this idea is the sense of burn. When you
touch a hot surface, the immediate reaction, involuntary it is because you do
it unconsciously, is that the limb touching the hot surface immediately
retracts.  Thus a signal has passed from
the multitude of cells that constitute the skin of your hand to transmit it
instantaneously to the brain that something that was not expected or is
dangerous to the skin has occurred, and the brain in turn signals the
withdrawal of the hand from that area, without conscious action on your
part.  Thus in this manner, the signals
that have passed from the brain to the hand, and from the hand to the brain are
part of the biology cybernetics.

Study
of cybernetics has led to the modeling and use of robots in industrial and
other fields.

It
is used in your water heaters, your meal cookers, your cars (ignition timings,
speed control), and in so many more. 
Another useful technique that is coming up and is due to cybernetics is
the ability of the motor car to sense another in proximity and to apply the
brakes even before you can react! It is extensively used in artificial
intelligence, and of course on this computer you are using to read this
article.