Primary malignant melanoma of the anal canal is a challenging tumor in terms of diagnosis and treatment. This article provides and overview of some recent scientific literature on this rare condition.
Malignant melanoma is one of the most variable and complex human cancers, showing diverse presentation and clinical behavior. This article summarizes the main features of one of the more unusual variants, nevoid malignant melanoma which often resembles benign melanocytic neoplasms (moles).
The uPA-uPAR enzyme system is involved in many malignancies, including pancreatic cancer. However progress in therapeutic targeting have been slow. Now, antibody therapies show potential to enter the clinic, allowing researchers to investigate the potential of uPA targeted therapy for cancer.
This article reviews experimental treatments for advanced prostate cancer which have been evaluated in clinical trials. Recent developments in androgen targeting, second line chemotherapy and immunotherapy have led to significant improvements in the management of cancer of the prostate.
It is possible to use glucocorticoids (GCs) such as prednisone, dexamethasone and hydrocortisone as a treatment for prostate cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms by which glucocorticoids affect the disease are not wholly understood. This article gives a summary of the current knowledge.
Chemotherapy-induced anemia is a common side effect of cancer treatment, particularly in patients with lung, gynecological, genitourinary and lymphatic cancer. Fortunately, antineoplastic chemotherapy induced anemia can be managed with transfusions and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents.
Sarcomatoid lung carcinomas are poorly differentiated non-small cell carcinomas of the lung such as spindle cell neoplasm. These lung cancers are often difficult to diagnose because of their rare occurrence and variable cellular appearance.
Thyroid cancer is classified into four types: papillary, follicular, medullary and anaplastic. Papillary and follicular neoplasm of the thyroid are commonly referred to as differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC). This article outlines factors affecting the incidence, management and prognosis of DTC.
CLL is the most common type of leukemia, accounting for approximately 35 out of every 100 cases. The incidence is greater in older people; nearly 75 percent of CLL patients are over the age of 60. Learn more about the factors affecting life expectancy.
There is evidence that immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) such thalidomide are effective against multiple myeloma and MDS. Further research could support the extension of IMiDs treatment to other malignancies e.g the combination of thalidomide and chronic myelogenous leukemia.
JC virus (JCV) is known to cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). It is possible that this virus also plays a role in human cancer, particularly brain tumors. This article sumarizes the current thinking on JC virus and medulloblastoma, astrocytoma and other cancers.
Primary tumors of the CNS (central nervous system) account for approximately 2% of human cancers. The most common type of CNS tumors in adults are malignant gliomas, which are divided into low grade (grade 1 and grade 2 glioma) and high grade (grade 3 and 4).
High-grade gliomas, such as anaplastic astrocytoma brain tumor, are one of the most common central nervous system tumors in adults. These tumors are generally aggressive and most patients have short survival times. Learn about the prognosis of this disease to better understand how it progresses.
The incidence rate of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has been slowly increasing in many developed countries over the last 20 years. Life expectancy is determined largely by the stage of disease present at diagnosis.
Infection with some viruses has been linked to certain types of cancer. Roughly 18 percent of cancer globally is attributable to infectious agents, with a higher incidence in developing countries. The most significant cancer causing viruses globally are HPV, HBV, HCV and EBV.
Approximately 40% of adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) are classified as diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). DLBCL is a malignancy of B lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). As the malignancy develops it replaces the normal lymph node architecture and shows a characteristic ‘diffuse’ pattern.
The term Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) describes a large group of lymphocyte malignancies. Bone marrow transplantation is a procedure more commonly used to treat leukemia than lymphoma. However, bone marrow transplant for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma can be beneficial to some patients.
Bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma (BAC) is a type of lung cancer. It has a characteristic, non-invasive growth pattern. Unlike many other forms of lung cancer, bronchoalveolar lung cancer is seen in patients of variable age and is not strongly associated with smoking.
Provenge is the first dendritic cell immunotherapy for cancer to be approved by the US Food & Drug Administration (FDA). The treatment can extend survival time in hormone-resistant, metastatic prostate cancer patients. The principles of the provenge prostate cancer vaccine are explained here.
There have been significant advances in the understanding of pancreatic cancer at the molecular level and in the treatment of early-stage tumors. A blood test for pancreatic cancer is possible by measurement of serum CA 19-9, which can be a useful biomarker for the disease.