Most Commonly Used Method in Unilateral Oophorectomy
The surgical removal of an ovary is usually done through laparoscopy. Anesthesia is applied before this procedure is done. Afterwards, a Veress needle is used to inject carbon dioxide into the abdominal cavity. This gas causes to abdomen to inflate, as this serves to: 1) to allow visualization of the abdominal cavity during surgery; 2) to provide a work space, and; 3) to prevent or reduce complications.
One or two incisions are then made in the abdominal cavity, after which tubes are inserted. The surgeon inserts a slender and lighted instrument that looks like a telescope into the tubes, called trocars. This instrument is called a laparoscope, and it is necessary in order to view the abdominal cavity through a video screen while the surgery is performed. The surgeon also inserts small instruments alongside the laparoscope or through the other trocars to perform surgery.
Once the ovary is detached, it is cut into small pieces. The ovary may be removed in two ways - through the trocars, or by making a small incision at the top of the vagina.
In choosing the method in performing oophorectomy, the doctor considers the size and condition of the ovaries, previous abdominal surgeries undergone by the patient, as well as the presence of heart and lung disease. Most outpatients undergo laparoscopy, colpotomy and minilaparotomy, while laparotomy requires hospitalization of the patient.