Ovarian cancer is among the common and malignancies in women. If diagnosed early, it is treatable. However, most women manifest the symptoms at the later stage of the cancer. Hence, the prognosis has become poorer and causes the untimely death of many. The exact cause of ovarian cancer is unknown but the risks that increase the development of cancer have been identified.
If a woman is manifesting symptoms of ovarian cancer, her gynecologist will require her to have a surgery. The surgical procedures help identify the stage of malignancy the woman has. The different stages of ovarian cancer are defined in accordance with the classification devised by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetricians or FIGO in conformity with the classification made by TNM.
Stage 0 - The primary tumor cannot be established
Stage I - The primary tumor is limited to one or two ovaries. It is further divided into IA, IB and IC depending on the extent of the tumor.
Stage II - either one or two of the ovaries has tumor plus pelvic extension. It is divided into 3 categories: IIA, IIB and IIC dependent to the extension of the malignancy.
Stage III - there is tumor in either one or both ovaries with metastasis outside the pelvic area and lymph nodes. It is further divided into IIIA, IIIB and IIIC depending on the size of the tumor growth in areas outside the peritoneal area.
Stage IV – the tumor has metastasized outside the peritoneal cavity.