Tricuspid atresia develops in children when the tricuspid valve of the heart, normally located between the right-side chambers, is missing. Complications of this condition include congestive heart failure, low oxygen levels and heart murmur.
Causes: Potential causes of tricuspid atresia include genetic factors and conditions such as Down Syndrome. Most cases stem from unknown causes.
Symptoms: Common symptoms include weakness, fatigue, blue-colored skin and breathing difficulties.
Treatment: Children with this condition are typically treated with prostaglandin medication, antibiotics and surgical procedures such as shunting. Many older children receive the Fontan procedure, which creates new pathways for blood travel within the heart.
Pulmonary atresia is a condition in which the pulmonary valve in the heart does not open properly to allow sufficient blood flow from the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. As a result, babies with pulmonary atresia do not receive adequate amounts of oxygen.
Causes: Most causes are unclear, though chromosomal or environmental factors play a role in some cases of pulmonary atresia.
Symptoms: Common symptoms include blue-colored and clammy skin, shallow and rapid breathing, and lethargy in newborns.
Treatment: Options for treatment vary depending on the severity of the defect and may involve medication, balloon insertion in the pulmonary valve or cardiac surgical procedures.