Associated Risks and Side Effects
There are risks associated with all medical or surgical procedures, and some patient’s will experience side-effects and complications during the treatment with in vitro fertilization. The most common complications are due to problems with ovarian stimulation, risks associated with collecting the eggs, the possibility of an ectopic pregnancy, multiple pregnancies or the failure of the treatment.
Studies have hinted at a link between using fertility drugs and the risk of ovarian, breast and endometrial cancer. These divisive studies suggest that ovarian stimulation medications are linked to ovarian cancer. Evidence shows there are significant problems in many of these studies, particularly in subgroup analysis and by their inability to control for other cancer factors. A few patients experience side-effects when using fertility medications, including local reactions such as bruising and tenderness at the site of injections, or a generalized allergic reaction. Medications, such as GnRh analogues can cause short term headaches, mood changes, hot flushes and vaginal dryness.
Problems can arise during collection of the eggs, such as discomfort, minimal bleeding during the procedure from the ovary or vagina, or infection, which is rare, and is treated with antibiotics. Internal organs such as bowel and bladder or blood vessels can be injured, but is extremely rare.
Ectopic pregnancy after IVF treatment usually occurs in the fallopian tube, but an ectopic pregnancy can occur in the ovary and cervix. The ovary and cervix locations are less common. Abdominal pregnancy is rare and usually the fetus dies.