The patient can do a lot to control the condition by learning how to respond to symptoms. If one is feeling faint, they should immediately lie down and elevate their legs. (Very rarely, a fainting patient could die if prevented from lying down.) A patient can increase blood volume by simply increasing fluid intake. Sometimes increasing dietary salt will effectively increase blood pressure and decrease the frequency or severity of symptoms.
The patient that is alert to emotional and environmental triggers can reduce the frequency and severity of symptoms. They can address emotional stressors, avoid standing in long lines, avoid prolonged exposure to hot environments (hot weather, showers, saunas, etc.). A patient that often must stand for long periods of time may be helped by wearing compression stockings. Avoid alcohol and caffeine because they both cause blood vessels to dilate.
Medical treatment may be necessary for more persistent cases. Treatments include beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, serotonin reuptake inhibitors, theophylline, and other drugs. It often takes patience and perseverance on the part of both patient and physician to find the right medication or combination of medications. If medical treatments prove inadequate, sometimes a pacemaker is recommended, but its efficacy is unclear.